Biopolymers isolation (chitin and chitosan) from mushroom biomass of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq: Fries) Kummer

N. Benbelkacem belabbas, M. Mansour Benamar, N. Ammar-Khodja, L. Adour

Abstract


Abstract:  Chitin and chitosan, polysaccharides similar to cellulose, have shown their importance in many fields: biology, medicine, environment, pharmacy, agribusiness, etc. Published research over the last 5 years have proposed fungal biomasses development as an alternative source to marine biomasses, particularly Basidiomycetes that are widely used for biomass production due to cell wall polysaccharides. The aim of this study is to extract chitin and chitosan from mycelium of a Local edible Mushroom strain, Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq: Fries) Kummer (LPO). The approach consist of using condensed mycelium recovered during harvesting period of LPO grown on an original mixture of olive pomace (OP), coffee grounds (CG) and wheat straw (WS) under solid state fermentation. Chemical treatments based on 1M NaOH at 121°C for 15 min and 0.35M CH3COOH at 95°C for 8 hours enable to extract chitin and chitosan with optimal yields of, respectively, 175.92 mg and 3.7 mg per g of dry biomass. Compared to commercial marine chitin (Sigma Aldrich), Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) analyzes highlighted strong similarity in peaks but with low intensities with the condensed mycelium of LPO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed a crystalline nanofibrous structure for chitin and a smooth and firm surface without nanofibers and nanopores for chitosan. Our findings suggest that LPO is a potential candidate to produce chitin and chitosan by bioconversion of an agro-industrial wastes mixture.

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