The industrial by-product of chili paste: optimized carotenoids extraction

A. Benbouriche, Y. Benchikh, M. Bachir bey, H. Boudries, H. Guemghar-Haddadi


Abstract: Chili paste is a condiment that takes a typical place in our diet due to its innumerable culinary, nutritional and medicinal properties, but during its elaboration process, a considerable quantity of industrial by-product is rejected. This investigation aims to optimize the extraction solvent of carotenoids from the industrial by-product discarded during the production of chili paste (Harissa). In the first step, extraction kinetics using 15 solvents with variable polarities (5 alcohols, 4 polar aprotics, 4 hydrocarbons, chloroform, and water) were studied. In the first step, a mixture design following the simplex lattice type was applied so as to search the optimal combination of the three best previously selected solvents. The results showed that the three most efficient solvents for the recovery of carotenoids were respectively acetone, hexane and petroleum ether. The simplex lattice design applied for three best solvents indicated that the established model was accurate (R2 = 0.89 with p<0.0001). The validation of the developed model manifests close results between the estimated optimal value and the experimental ones, which indicated its validation. The best combination of solvents was 60% acetone/40% petroleum ether/0% hexane. The obtained solvents mixture permits the amelioration of carotenoids extraction (42 mg kg-1 DM) from the by-product of chili paste.

Full Text:



Dimitrios, B. Sources of natural phenolic antioxidants. Trends Food Sci. Techn. 17 (2006) 505-512.

Mishra, R.; Rout, E.; Joshi, R.K. Identification of Resistant sources against anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum truncatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Capsicum annuum L. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India Sect. B-Biol. Sci., 89 (2019) 517-524.

FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization. Available from: Accessed. (2019). 28.10.19.

Topuz, A.; Ozdemir, F. Assessment of carotenoids, capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid composition of some selected pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in Turkey. J. Food Compos. Anal. 20 (2007) 596-602.

Dubey, R.K.; Singh, V.; Upadhyay, G.; Pandey, A.; Prakash, D. Assessment of phytochemical composition and antioxidant potential in some indigenous chili genotypes from North East India. Food chem. 188 (2015) 119-125.

Ruanma, K.; Shank, L.; Chairote, G. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of green chili paste and its ingredients. Maejo Int. J. Sci. Technol. 4 (2010) 193-200.

Chamikara, M.; Dissanayake, D.; Ishan, M.; Sooriyapathirana, S. Dietary, anticancer and medicinal

properties of the phytochemicals in chili pepper (Capsicum spp.). Ceylon J. Sci. 45 (2016) 5-20.

Marete, E.N. ; Jacquier, J.C.; O’Riordan, D. Effects of extraction temperature on the phenolic and parthenolide contents, and colour of aqueous feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) extracts. Food chem. 117 (2009) 226-231.

Fernandes, S.S.; Coelho, M. S. de las Mercedes Salas-Mellado, M. In: MR Segura-Campos, Bioactive Compounds: Health Benefits and Potential Applications, Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, 2019. pp. 129-142.

Goupy, J.; Creighton, L. Introduction aux plans d’expériences Dunod. L'usine nouvelle, 2 (2006). (10), pp. 320.

Benmeziane, A.; Boulekbache-Makhlouf, L.; Mapelli-Brahm, P.; Khodja, N.K.; Remini, H.; Madani, K. ; Meléndez-Martínez, A.J. Extraction of carotenoids from cantaloupe waste and determination of its mineral composition. Food Res. Intern. 111 (2018) 391-398.

Langi, P.; Kiokias, S.; Varzakas, T.; Proestos, C. In Microbial Carotenoids, Springer, 2018; pp. 57-71.

Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. Update on natural food pigments-A mini-review on carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains. Food Res. Intern., 124 (2019) 200-205.

Marchetti, N.; Giovannini, P.P.; Catani, M.; Pasti L.; Cavazzini, A. Thermodynamic insights into the separation of carotenoids in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography. Int. J. Anal. Chem., 2019 (2019) 1-7.

Schweiggert, U.; Kurz, C.; Schieber A.; Carle, R. Effects of processing and storage on the stability of free and esterified carotenoids of red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and hot chili peppers (Capsicum frutescens L.). Eur. Food Res. Technol. 225(2007) 261-270.

Nath, P.; Kaur, C.; Rudra, S.G. ; Varghese, E. Enzyme-assisted extraction of carotenoid-rich extract from red capsicum (Capsicum annuum). Agric. Res. 5(2016), 193-204.

Kaur, R.; Kaur, K. Effect of processing on color, rheology and bioactive compounds of different sweet pepper purees. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 75(2020) 369-375.

Civan, M.; Kumcuoglu, S. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoid and capsaicinoid from the pulp of hot pepper paste based on the bio-refinery concept. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 113(2019) 108320.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Copyright UMMB © 2020 University M'hamed Bougara - Boumerdes. Independance AV., Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria, Tel/Fax: +213 24 91 14 98/ +213 2491-29-51